The Raison d’être of the Software Architect is designing all the layers of a system and the 20% percent of the packages which do the 80% of system’s tasks. Likewise the Software Designer main deliverable is the 20% of the classes’ design and development which do the 80% of the system’s task. Software Architect’s main focus is non-functional requirements; Software Designer’s main focus is functional requirements. In general, layers and packages’ design are very important tasks.

While designing layers bear in mind:

  • Granularity: not too much, not too few. Group code in layers using a consistent abstraction level.
  • Communication: it can be:
    • Top/down: any of a top level with any of a bottom level.
    • Strict iteration: upper layers communicate only with the next lower one.
    • Loose iteration: no order. Any with any.
  • Ask yourself:
    • Will functional requirements cross cut layers?
    • Which non-functional requirements are common to all layers?
    • Which tiers host which layers?
  • Minimize dependencies between layers with:
    • Facades/Gateways which hides the internal working.
    • Well defined inputs/outputs. Accomplish this with:
      • Simple value types or composite types (i.e. adapters or decorators).
      • Embrace dependency inversion (common interfaces/shared abstractions) if necessary. Decouple for a good reason.
      • Commands, messages or events.

While designing packages bear in mind: Group sets of related functionality in packages. If a package has only one class your abstraction level is not consistent (in other words, you’re looking for details in some packages only). The same if you find a package with more than 7 classes.

In general: define a (small) set of rules and FOLLOW them. A sample rules could be: Given the rule that communication is strict then no element (e.g.: packages, layers, Facades,.) should communicate with another element in the same hierarchy level, so business rules Facades should communicate using events injected by controllers.


Javier Andrés Cáceres Alvis

Microsoft Most Valuable Professional – MVP
Intel Black Belt Software Developer